DAVANGERE DISTRICT - A   PROFILE

India

Karnataka

 

Davangere

ORIGIN OF THE NAME :

 Davangere district carved out of the erstwhile three districts namely Chitradurga, Shimoga and Bellary derives its name from DEVANAGARI.*  Davangere is one of THIRTY districts of Karnataka state. With creation of the new district on 15th August  1997 with Davangere as its headquarters  the district was given the name of the headquarters town called  DAVANGERE.

LOCATION :

A unique district located in the central part of northern Karnataka lies between 13 .5’ and 14 .50’ north latitudinal parallels and 75. 30’ and 76. 30’ east longitudinal parallels. The district is bounded by five districts namely Haveri and Shimoga on the  west,     Bellary     on the north,     Chitradurga   on  the   east, 

History dates back to 1000 AD when Baithur was the capital of Hoysala and Pallava Empire.  The name Davangere may have been evolved from the word Davan-kere (Gods Tank).  It was once the Royal Stables of the Yousala Dynasty because of abundant supply of feed and water.  It was also called Deva-Nagari, as it was one of the biggest townships of the empire.

Chitradurga and Shimoga on the east, and Haveri on the southwest.  Tungabhadra River passes through Honnali taluk and later forms natural boundary on the west along Harihar and Harpanhalli borders. Davangere and Harihar towns lie on NH4 through which broadgauge railway line also passes.

 AREA AND POPULATION:

The district spans over a total geographical area of 5975.99 square kilometers. It ranks  16th in area among twenty-seven districts of the state and measures  117  km from north to south and    110   km  from east to west.

Davangere ranks twenty-second place in term of population in the state. The population of the district according to 2001 Census is 17,90,952 comprising 9,17,705 males and 8,73,247 females. According to the 1991 census the total population of the district was 15,59,222 consisting  917320 males and 872373 females.  During 1991-2001, 2,31,730 people have been added to the total population constituting a decadal variation of 14.78 per cent. As per 2001 census the rural population of the district is   12,47,954 and urban population is 5,42,998.

 Davanagere is relatively more densely populated because of the overall density of population in the district is 333 per sq. k.m. as compared to the state average of 276 per sq. k.m as per 2001 census. It varies from 165 per sq. km in Jagalur to 644 per sq. km in Davangere. For every 1000 males there are on an average 952 females in Davangere district as compared to the state average of 964 as per 2001 census.

The population has increased in all the six taluks at the considerably different rates. The rural population is dispersed amongst 918 inhabited villages belonging to these five talukas and the urban population on the other hand is shared by 6 towns.

In Davangere district, the literate persons constitute 6 percent of the total population in 2001 as against 55.96 percent in 1991. This figure is almost near the state average of 56.04 in 1991 and 67.04 in 2001. However, during the past many years there has been a steady and substantial increase in the proportion of literates in the population of the district. There are 2134 primary schools, 392 high schools, 96 Junior colleges, 30 first grade colleges,  8 polytechnics, 3 engineering colleges, two Dental and one Medical college and one ayurvedic medical college, one University Fine Art college, 3 Management colleges, P. G. Centre of Kuvempu University, 5 Educational Colleges, 15 Nursing Colleges and school.   

ADMINISTRATION:

Davangere district is the one of the 30 districts of the State of Karnataka with its headquarters located in Davangere town. Deputy Commissioner is the head of the district administration -general, revenue, and development. As a District Magistrate he is responsible for maintenance of law and order in the district.

 
TALUKAWISE NUMBER OF VILLAGES & T0WNS, AREA, POPULATION, DENSITY IN DAVANGERE DISTRICT.

Sl.

No

Name of Taluka

No. of villages

No.of Towns

Area in sq. km

Population (2001 census)

Density
per sq km

Male

Female

Total

1

2

3

4 5 6 7

8

9

1

Davanagere

172

1

956.58

309642

292881

602523

644

2

Harihar

87

1

484.62

126128

119526

245654

515

3

Honnali

168

1

884.74

113577

109015

222592

251

4

Channagiri

246

1

1170.86

149796

142711

292507

242

5

Harapanahalli

75

1

1436.72

137608

131185

268793

187

6

Jagalur

170

1

963.35

80954

77929

158883

165

 

TOTAL

918

6

5896.87

917705

873247

1790952

333

 Davangere district is divided in to 6 talukas namely DAVANAGERE, HARIHAR, HONNALI, CHANNAGIRI, HARAPANAHALLI AND JAGALUR under the charge of Tahsildars which are grouped into two revenue sub-divisions namely Davangere and Harapanahalli under the charge of Assistant Commissioner with headquarters at Davangere and Harapanhalli respectively. Four taluks namely Davangere, Harihar, Honnali and Channagiri come under Davangere Sub-division, and two taluks namely Harapanhalli and Jagalur taluks come under Harapanhalli Sub-division. These six taluks are in turn divided into 267 revenue circles. The district has 918 villages and 6 towns including Davangere and Harihar city municipal councils. As provided in the Karnataka Panchayat Raj Act 1993 the district is divided into 230 gram panchayats. The talukawise distribution of villages, revenue circles, towns and gram panchayats are shown below.

 

TALUKAWISE NUMBER OF VILLAGES, REVENUE CIRCLES, TOWNS, and GRAM PANCHAYATS.  

Sl No

Name of Taluk

No. of  villages

No of revenue circles

No of  hoblies

No. of Towns

No of Gram Panchayat

Inhabited

Uninhabited

Total

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1

Davanagere

153

13

166

50

3

0

40

2

Harihar

75

09

84

27

2

0

25

3

Honnali

153

20

173

62

6

1

47

4

Channagiri

209

40

249

51

6

1

61

5

Harapanahalli

80

0

80

39

4

1

35

6

Jagalur

140

31

171

40

3

1

22

 

TOTAL

810

113

923

269

24

4

230

 TOPOGRAPHY:

The landscape of Davangere district consists of mainly of vast stretches of plains. The southern part of the district covering Channagiri and Honnali taluks are under malnad area and Davangere and Harihar taluks are covered by low hills and meandering streams. Sasalhalla also known as Sulekerehalla, a major stream flows through Davangere and Harihar taluks. The northern portion consists of vast expanses of plain country. This region is well drained by a number of streams.

 The district consists of mainly 3 types of soils, viz., black alluvial soil, red soil with shallow to medium depth gravel and clay soil.  The black soil has high water retaining capacity, is self aerating with small to medium depth and rich in clay.  It is suitable for crops like cotton, paddy, sugarcane etc.  Both black and red soils found in the district are generally fertile.                                                           

 CLIMATE   :

Davangere district has an agreeable and healthy climate. Within the district the southern belt has a more pleasant weather. The year is usually divided into four seasons. Summer sets in during the second half of February and lasts till the end of May. This season is marked by harsh eastern winds, rising temperatures, whirlwinds, and occasional thunderstorms accompanied by sharp showers.   South –west monsoon season stars during early June and lasts till the end of September. This is a period of cool and damp climate.   The months of October and November constitute the post monsoon or the north–west monsoon season and this period witnesses a gradual rise in day temperatures and a substantial amount of rainfall as well. The winter season covers the period from December to mid February.         

While Channagiri and Honnali blocks coming under Malnad area, have hot summer, pleasant winter and good monsoon, Davangere and Harihar have hot summer, pleasant winter and average rainfall.  Harapanhalli and Jagalur blocks have very hot summer, very low rainfall and a pleasant winter.

                    Monthwise rainfall received during the last 14 years in the district is shown in the following table       

TALUKWISE RAINFALLS FOR 13 YEARS

Year

Taluk

District

Davana

gere

Harihar

Honnali

Chennagiri

Harapanahalli

Jagalur

Normal

659.0

566.00

620.0

808.0

657.0

556.0

644.0

1994

413.4

658.4

590.2

819.9

465.6

466.2

569.0

1995

389.8

512.1

379.8

718.8

364.1

242.2

434.5

1996

593.6

622.3

623.3

761.6

483.7

541.9

604.4

1997

625.7

603.0

790.4

1026.5

508.9

524.9

673.1

1998

610.9

623.5

785.9

851.7

443.7

410.6

621.2

1999

449.8

517.2

758.5

923.7

402.9

504.4

591.1

2000

699.6

526.6

775.2

976.1

576.8

528.8

680.5

2001

547.9

456.5

485.2

523.3

489.6

381.7

482.8

2002

559.7

540.7

541.3

581.8

421.7

357.3

500.3

2003

388.6

350.8

478.1

590.8

344.0

373.8

417.2

2004

524.8

470.3

671.8

762.0

652.3

615.9

605.5

2005

869.6

1040.9

739.7

924.7

634.8

568.5

860.3

2006

480.0

589.6

662.9

609.7

595.1

603.5

590.1

2007

796.6

836.0

750.7

1114.4

721.5

718.4

822.9

 Davanagere district receives average annual rainfall of 644.0 mm and within the district the quantum of rainfall and the average number of rainy days decreases as one move from South to North. During the south west monsoon season 80-85 percent of the annual rainfall precipitates. There are 40 rain gauge stations in the district.  

FLORA AND FAUNA:

The district is deficient in forest wealth.  Out of the total geographical area of 5.97 lakh hectares, the area covered under forest in Davangere district is only 0.87 lakh hectares, forming 15 per cent (State average of about 16 per cent) as against 33 per cent required.  Wasteland accounts for 6 per cent (0.34 lakh hectares) and out of this 9168 hectares is cultivable wasteland.  Government land/uncultivated land accounts for 8 per cent (0.48 lakh hectares) of total geographical area.  

The existing tree cover has diminished, leading to soil erosion, wind erosion, stream erosion etc.  The growth of this sector is hampered in the absence of proper extension services and also lack of awareness of about commercial viability and social benefits of the sector.

Social forestry is taken up by the department of forests on the waste lands owned by the Government.  The revenue land identified by the department for development of social forestry is about 6000 hectares leaving aside the pastures and groove, the land owned by individuals which would be available for forestry and waste land development activities on a long term potential is estimated to be 6500 – 6800 hectares in the district.

 IRRIGATION:

The absence of any major irrigation project in the district highlights the vulnerability of the agricultural economy and emphases the importance of dry land farming in its overall economy.

 Four taluks of Davangere sub-division i.e., Davangere, Harihar, Honnali and Channagiri partly come under Tunga and Bhadra irrigation projects. Sasala Halla also known, as Sulekere Halla is a major stream and flows through Davangere and Harihar taluks.

About 35 per cent of the net area sown is having irrigation facilities. Canals account for 53 per cent and wells account for 47 per cent of the total irrigated areas.  Source wise details are given in the following table.

                 SOURCEWISE NET AREA IRRIGATED IN DAVANGERE DISTRICT IN HECTARES 2004-05

Sl

No

Source

Net area irrigated

Percentage to Net Area Irrigated

Percentage to Net Area Shown

1

Canals

67926

53.0

18.0

2

Tanks

  1218

1.0  

0.0

3

Wells

1483

1.0

0.0

4

Bore wells

47242

37.

12.0

5

Lift irrigation

  9965

8.0

3.0

6

Others

    444

0.0

0.0

 

TOTAL

     128278

100.0

      33.0

 AGRICULTURE:

Davanagere is predominantly an agriculture district and cultivable land is the backbone of its economy. Since the district covers the total geographical area of 597597 hectares and has a population of 17,90952 (2001 census) the average extent of land available per capita is 0.33 hectares.  According to the latest land utilization statistics, out of the total geographical area 64 per cent is the net area sown.

LAND UTILISATION IN DAVANGERE DISTRICT 2005-06

Sl N0

Type of land

Area in Hectares

Percentage

1

Forests

87,104

15.0

2

Barren and Uncultivable land

20,533

3.0

3

Land put to non agriculture use

38,963

7.0

4

Permanent pastures and other grazing land

19,538

3.0

5

Miscellaneous trees, drops, grows not included in net area sown

5,348

1.0

6

Cultivable waste

9,108

2.0

7

Current follows

26,773

4.0

8

Other fallow lands

8,146

1.0

9

Net Area sown

3,82,584

64.0

 

              TOTAL

5,98,097

100.0

The distribution of land holdings by size group is shown in the following table.  It is obvious that the distribution of land holdings is quite uneven.  According to the 2005-06 agricultural census the small and marginal farmers account for 76 per cent of the total land holdings with only 42 per cent of the total area. On the other hand farmers owning more than 2 hectares of land account for 27 per cent of the total land holdings with major portion of the area of 58 per cent.  According to 2001 census 2,46,057 are agricultural laborers and 7,30,099 are non-agricultural workers.

                            DISTRIBUTION OF LAND HOLDINGS BY SIZE GROUPS IN HECTARES 2005-06

Size of the holding (in Ht)

Category of the farmer

Number

Percentage

Area

Percentage

Less than 1

Marginal

120074

46

62321

15

1---2

Small

80428

30

113072

27

2---4

Semi Medium

45593

17

122825

30

4---10

Medium

16931

6

94959

23

10 and above

Big

1694

1

23048

5

TOTAL

 

264720

100

416225

100

AGRICULTURE SECTOR

The main food crops are paddy, maize and ragi while the important commercial crops are sugarcane, chilly, onion, and cotton. The net sown area of 3.84 lakh hectares constitutes about 64 per cent of the geographical area which is far higher than the State average of 55 per cent.

Of the total geographical area, forest area accounts for 15 per cent (0.90 lakh hectares) and waste land 6 percent.  The total cultivable area is 3.87 lakh hectares (65 per cent).  The net irrigated area is 1.13 lakh hectares, which account for 29 per cent of net sown area.    Source-wise, canal irrigation covers 65 per cent, followed by wells/ bore wells 28 per cent, while remaining 17 per cent is by tanks and other sources.  Harihar (60 per cent) and Davangere (39 per cent) taluks have the highest irrigation facilities, whereas Jagalur (11 per cent) and Harapanahalli (16 per cent) have lowest irrigation facilities.

The gross cropped area is 4.81 lakh hectares. Cereals occupy about 76 per cent followed by pulses 6 per cent, oilseeds 12 per cent, and commercial crops 6 per cent.

  Paddy, ragi, maize and jowar are grown in all the taluks.  About 82 per cent of the total cropped area is under food crops.  Cash crops such as sugarcane, onion, chilly, cotton and plantation crops i.e., arecanut and coconut are also grown in 18 percent of the total cultivated area.  Fruit crops and sericulture is gaining popularity in the district.

  PLANTATION AND HORTICULTURE:

Davangere district possesses the agro climatic conditions suitable for raising a variety of plantation and horticulture crops. The malnad area and the traditional zone of the district comprising of Channagiri, Honnali, Davangere and Harihar are well suited for growing fruit crops such as banana, mango, papaya, coconut, arecanut, etc. Aromatic plants, spice crops and medicinal plants can also be grown commercially in this belt.   Growth of the plantation and horticulture sector, a labour intensive one, is crucial for the development of district economy as it can absorb the rural labour.  Further, this sector also provides raw materials for the agro based and processing industries.

  Arecanut and coconut are the major plantation crops grown in the district.  Mango, sapota, pomegranate, banana, etc., are the major fruit crops.   Oil palm, cashewnut, cardamom and vanila are fruit crops such fig (anjura), pomegranate, papaya etc.

 ANIMAL HUSBANDARY:

Animal husbandry, is by and large, regarded as an adjunct to agriculture. Every cultivator’s household usually posses at least a pair of bullocks. Quite large proportions among them possess a few cows, one or two buffaloes, a few sheep and goats as well.  Poultry keeping is also quite popular in the rural as well as in the urban areas. An idea regarding the livestock wealth of the district may be had from the following details.

                       LIVE STOCK AND POULTRY POPULATION ACCORDING TO LIVESTOCK CENSES OF 2003.

Category

Numbers

           1. Cattle

3,51,050

           2. Buffaloes

2,20,470

           3. Sheep

2,05,348

           4. Goats

1,13,329

           5. Pigs

    3,100

           6. Others

      51

           7. Poultry

15,27,449

 INDUSTRIAL SECTOR:

Davangere was once a famous trade and manufacturing centers and was popularly called as Manchester city of India for its vast cotton growing area and the existence of the cotton textile industries and production of high quality fabric.  Being situated in a groundnut, pulses and cotton growing tract, the place had a number of groundnut oil factories.

In addition to this number of sugar factories in the district, clearly manifest that Davangere was a prominent industrial centre in the State.

But now the district is reduced to agricultural district due to the closure of cotton mills and many oil and rice mills.

The small scale industries in the district constituted about 1.9 per cent of the total units in Karnataka. Of these, nearly 40 per cent are located in rural areas as against the state proportion of about 38 per cent the district accounted for about 2.9 per cent of small scale sector employment in the state.  The per unit employment, investment in plant machinery, capacity utilization are also lower than the state average.

Falling in line with the state, food and food processing industry provides the highest employment in the district followed by textiles, printing, metal products, machine tool, furniture and paper products. About 25 per cent of the workers are self employed in the district as against the state average of 22 per cent.

 BANKING NETWORK:

The district possesses compact banking network. 23 Commercial Banks with 87 branches, 3 RRBs with 42 branches, 3 DCCBs with 10 branches and 6 PCARDBS are operating in the district. Specialised institutions like Karnataka State Financial Corporation and Karnataka State Industrial Co-operative Bank have also established their branches. The per branch population excluding co-operatives works to 12,500 which is higher than the State average of 10135. Most of the Commercial Bank branches are operating in the rural areas also.  These branches have on average 10 12 villages as their service area.

There is a proposal for setting up of separate DDCCB and district branch of PCARDBs for Davangere district.  In the case of RRBs, 3 RRBs viz., Chitradurga Grameena Bank, Sahyadri Grameena Bank and Tungabhadra Grameena Bank are operating in the district.  The area of operation of the 3 RRB and DCCBs are given below.

a)

Pragthi Grameena Bank & Chitragurga DCCB:  

Davangere, Harihar & Jagalur taluks

b)

Sahyadri Grameena Bank and Shimoga DCCB

Channagiri & Honnali taluks

c)

Sahyadri Grameena Bank and Shimoga DCCB :  

Harapanahalli taluk 

Good numbers of Urban Co-operative banks have also established their branches in various parts of the district.